Although it does not hold true for all circumstances, the theory of a brain that exhibits modular localization of functions has been demonstrated in many studies.
MRI and PET imaging techniques have been used to identify patterns in how the brain responds to behavior, showing that certain areas of the brain are in use when corresponding tasks are performed, but are dormant at other times.
The brain is divided into many such areas, each specializing in particular functions. The exterior is divided into four main regions (lobes)- the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes – which, under normal conditions, are associated with certain aspects of our behavior.
- The frontal lobes are associated with executive function and complex behavior, such as thought.
- The parietal lobes respond to bodily sensations.
- The temporal lobes are in charge of diverse functions which range from processing auditory signals to encoding memories
- The occipital lobes deal in visual processing.
The internal portions of the brain are further subdivided into many other regions controlling different functions.
An online interactive map of the brain and its main regions can be found here.